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  1. Free eBooks - Project Gutenberg
  2. Esperanto - English Dictionary
  3. Esperanto - English
  4. Ethnozoology in Brazil: current status and perspectives

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Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article doi Key words: Typhloiulini, Typhloiulus, Serboiulus, Lamellotyphlus, 2-ethyl-1,4-benzoquinone, quinone millipedes, chemical defense, chemosystematics Introduction There is a need for a better understanding of the functional-ecological architecture of cave organisms Romero In many troglobionts, character differentiation is related to the life in caves, and the morpho-anatomy of cave-dwellers is frequently characterized by regression or modification in light-sensitive structures such as eyes, loss of pigmentation, and enlargement or elongation of body appendices.

Many of these modifications obviously arise late in the ontogenetic development Romero In evolutionary terms, cave environments have clearly and rapidly affected the morphology of troglobionts.

Many of these arthropods are chemically still well-defended, and chemical defense appears to persist when species become cavernicolous. The defensive chemistry of troglobionts, however, has only been elucidated for a few species, mainly for some polydesmid millipedes, one example of cave-harvestmen and two carabids Makarov et al.

Nevertheless, the scientific research in the area has been intensifying in recent years, and Brazil is currently one of the most important sources of scientific production in this area. The history of ethnozoology cannot be separated from the history of zoology, and the first records and contributions to this discipline were produced by naturalists and explorers. Historically, ethnozoological publications grew out of studies undertaken in academic areas such as zoology, human ecology, sociology and anthropology - reflecting the interdisciplinary character of ethnozoology.

This review presents an historical view of ethnozoological research in Brazil and examines its evolution, tendencies, and future perspectives. Searches were made for articles available through international online databases such as Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar as well as specific journal web sites.

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We used the following search key words: Ethnozoology, Ethnoentomology, Ethnoichthyology, Historical ethnozoology, Cynegetic activities, Ethnocarcinology, Ethnoornithology, Ethnotaxonomy, Ethnomastozoology, Ethnoherpetology, Ethnomalacology, Animal use and Zootherapy. It is important to note that a number of papers could be classified into more than one category, but for purposes of this revision we considered only the principal theme of the work in deciding its category e.

We recorded the location where the works were published, which allowed to identify their distribution according to biomes and regions where the studies were performed. The first works The first paper published in Brazil with a strict ethnozoological focus appeared in and described the popular zoological vocabulary used by Brazilian natives [ 16 ]. It must be noted, however, that when the first naturalists, colonists, and Jesuits arrived in the country in the 16th century they encountered an abundant, diversified and strange fauna waiting to be documented.

According to Ribeiro [ 17 ], the discovery of a whole new world in the Americas generated tremendous curiosity among Europeans about the new and different plants and animals that thrived in those lands. In the centuries that followed these first contacts, explorers, chroniclers and naturalists from many disciplines and many parts of Europe set out to describe this exotic cultural universe and the fantastic and unique natural world.

These historical documents provided descriptions of the local fauna and described the hunting techniques employed by local natives in embryonic ethnozoological approaches. According to Papavero [ 18 ], the indigenous tribes, notably those who spoke the Tupi language, acted as the first professors of natural history in Brazil, transmitting their detailed knowledge of the fauna and flora to the Jesuits, who were, in this area at least, their students.

Based on the information provided by these native tribes, the members of this religious order recorded the first lists and vocabularies of the local fauna. Little by little, expeditions through South America revealed an extremely rich fauna composed of animals of rare beauty, such as parrots and macaws which led to Brazil being called for a certain time the "Land of Parrots" , as well as strange creatures that were very different from any previously known to Europeans.

These findings stimulated the naturalists of that time to formulate various theories about the geographical distribution of species in the world [ 18 ].

Given that naturalists have been recording ethnozoological knowledge since colonial times, one could consider the roots of ethnozoological in Brazil as dating from the 16th century - so that the history of ethnozoology in Brazil blends into the history of zoology itself. In truth, it can be said that ethnozoology is old in practice but young in theory, for the discipline is not as modern as it might first appear, with roots going back to the earliest relationships between animals and humans.

Such a fauna is adapted to fluc- tuating conditions of salinity, oxygenation, desiccation, etc. The composition of such restricted communities shows a striking continuity during the course of Earth history.

The millipedes evidently inhabited the margins of the stagnant pools where a sparse vegetation dominated by bushes of Voltzia, and reed beds formed by horse- tails Schizoneura, Equisetites , grew. The specimens described here represent the only known species of diplopod living in this Triassic landscape.

Taphonomy Drying-up of the pools led to the death of the aquatic fauna. The abundance of esther- iids is significant in that these crustaceans are adapted to swift completion of their life cycle in temporary water bodies.

Regular high evaporation rates of the water bodies also favoured deoxygenation, consequent mass mortality of the aquatic fauna, and the rapid proliferation of microbial films. Such films may have shielded the carcasses from scavenging activity and created, by production of mucus, a closed environment inhibit- 4 W.

Later, the deposition of a new detrital load clay, silt buried the microbial films and the organisms Gall The millipede specimens described below may either have been washed as carcasses into a pool, or fallen in and drowned there. It is unlikely the specimens represent moults, since these animals quickly consume their shed exoskeletons to recycle calcium; fresh millipede moults are usually headless and split down the mid-dorsal line.

The specimens are relaxed and extended, not curled in a spiral, and appear to have undergone minimal decay. It may also be possible that in the process of scavenging organic matter left after one drying cycle of the pool, the millipedes were overwhelmed and buried when flood- ing refilled the basin. The millipedes are preserved flattened by sediment compaction in most cases, and as brown organic cuticle.

Other specimens see list below consist of either isolated series of tergites, or cross sections. Small pieces of cuticle are preserved on and just within the fine clayrock. Splitting of the rock has resulted in part of each specimen being preserved on one slab, and part on another. Part and counterpart correspond to left and right in most cases. In most specimens, some of the cuticle has fallen away leaving an external mould; this is particularly the case with the legs.

Material and methods All the millipede specimens come from localities numbered , in the Bust—Hangvil- ler region as described in Gall Whilst data are lacking for MYR9a,b, it is reasonable to assume it also came from the localities because all the other specimens originate from there, and its preservation is similar to that of the others. Specimens were studied, drawn and photographed on a Wild M7S stereomicro- scope using a Nikon D1X digital camera and drawing tube.

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Digital manipulation of pho- tographs and drawings was done on an Apple PowerBook G4 using Vuescan 7 scanning software www. Description of specimens? Superorder Nematophora Verhoeff, ? Order Callipodida Pocock, Genus Hannibaliulus, n. Type species: Hannibaliulus wilsonae, n.

Diagnosis: Collum small, not covering head, metazonites of the pleurotergites smooth, with a distinct transverse depression and ventrolateral rebordered flange; ozopores absent French Triassic millipedes 5? Etymology: The generic name honours Dr Joseph Hannibal of the Cleveland Mu- seum of Natural History, Ohio, in recognition of his many contributions to the study of fossil myriapods. Discussion: The rebordered, free ventrolateral margins of the pleurotergites imply that the sternites and pleurotergites are not fused, as they are in juliform millipedes.

Cylindrical diplosegments with free sternites occur in several millipede superorders; however, the large eyepatches and high segment count rule out any of these except the Nematophora comprising the orders Chordeumatida, Callipodida, and Stemmil- ulida. All Nematophora have a mid-dorsal suture on each trunk segment save the collum the legless first segment.

Because of the lateral preservation of our material we are unable to observe this character on the holotype and paratype, but another specimen Myr2a , preserved in dorsal view, shows evidence for such a suture Fig. Among the nematophoran orders, the specimens seem closest in form to the order Cal- lipodida. The large eyepatches rule out assignment to the extant order Stemmiulida, in which the eyes consist of one or two large, single stemmata. Chordeumatida have fixed segment numbers ranging from 26 to 32, as well as distinctive segmental setae we think may have been preserved, if originally present.

Callipodida, as well as Chordeu- matida, also have a prominent pair of epiproctal spinnerets, and given the condition and orientation of our material these should be visible, but they are not. Callipodida do not have fixed segment numbers, but adults always have more than Unlike chordeumatidans, callipodidans have prominent ozopores laterally on all metazonites from the fifth rearward, and these were not observed on our specimens.

Of course it is entirely possible that Triassic millipedes may have had combinations of characters not seen in living forms, or that Hannibaliulus wilsonae is a representative of a stem lineage of Nematophora, which may have originated in the late Carboniferous or earlier Han- nibal , Wilson While Wilson argued for early cladogenesis in the Diplopoda, and placed the origin of the Nematophora in the late Carboniferous, this was based on the occur- rence of Hexacontasoma Hannibal , which, while it may possibly be related to the Callipodida, has no visible synapomorphies of that group.

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Assigning millipede fossils to extant orders is a difficult business because the apomorphies of those orders are rarely visible in fossils. Many millipede fossils show juliform body structure, but that does not mean that they are necessarily related to existing julimorph orders; convergence in body structure is a frequent phenomenon among millipedes.

For example, on the basis of short series of body segments it would not be possible to differentiate a cylindri- cal, paranota-less polydesmidan of which there are many from a julidan. The orders Polydesmida and Julida are not closely related. Figs Diagnosis and occurrence: As for the genus. Etymology: The species epithet recognizes the important and ground-breaking con- tributions of Dr Heather M. Wilson to palaeomyriapodology.

Ethnozoology in Brazil: current status and perspectives

Description: Length of holotype, Greatest widths, 4. Forty to 44 trunk segments, includ- ing collum and epiproct. Pleurotergites consisting of prozonites and metazonites, pro- zonites hardly visible, telescoped into preceding metazonites. Metazonites divided by wide, shallow transverse depression into anterior and posterior parts, ventral margins strongly rebordered. Ozopores not detected, segmental setae and epiproctal spinnerets not detected. Collum not covering head.

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